[Crash Course] IXX & XX Morality and adolescence
Attachment: Contact and touch are vital to attachment, learning, emotional well-being, and psychological development. Familiarity is also key to attachment.
Imprinting process: the process by which certain animals form attachements during a critical period very early in life.
Secure(70%), insecure avoidant(15%), insecure ambivalent(15%).
Sensitive, attentive mothers usually raised securely attached kids. Less responsive mothers who often ignored their children, or super-anxious mothers who obsessed over every little thing, often raised insecurely attached kids.
Attachement is vital, because it builds the foundation for our sense of basic trust and quite possibly for our adult relationships, our motivation to achieve, and our willingness to be bold.
One of the biggest achievements in childhood is achieving a positive sens of self.
The authoritarian parents make rules with consequences and expect you to follow them because 'I said so!' and tend to not be very warm to their child. Whereas the permissive parents often cave to their child's demands and exert little control over any of their child's behaviour. The authoritative parents seek to find a balance between the two.
The ability to discern right from wrong and the formation of individual character. When these two things combine, they give us morality.
Preconventional morality phase: In this phase, kids are concerned with self interest, but they're also starting to judge people individually, based on their needs and point of view. Conventional morality phase: (Adolescence kids) Here, his subjects put an emphasis on conformity, and worry about what would happen to Heinz if he was seen as a criminal. This phase seems to worry 'What would people think?' Postconventional morality phase: (From adolescence on) We begin to account for differing values and basic rights. Laws are important, but in some situations might overrule them. This phase tops out with reasoning based on universal ethical principles and more abstract reasoning.
Adolescence: the struggle between the need to stand out, and the need to belong. All these kids feel tramendous pressure to maintain their image in their particular group, in part because there's just some security in belonging to a group, even if that group gets picked on by another group.
But the thing is, none of those kids are satisfied with their outward identities. Instead, they're all stuck in the classic teenage struggle, the crisis between identity and role confusion. In other words, their newly forming identity were at odds with other people's expectations of what roles they should play.
Erik Erikson's model: Stage (approximate age) Issue infancy (to 1 year) trust vs. mistrust toddlerhood (1 to 3 years) autonomy vs. shame and doubt preschool (3 to 6 years) initiative vs. guilt elementary school (6 to puberty) competence vs. inferiority adolescence (teen to 20s) identity vs. role confusion young adulthood (20s to 40s) intimacy vs. isolation middle adulthood (40s to 60s) generativity vs. stagnation late adulthood (60s and up) integrity vs. despair
Fluid intelligence: ability to solve problems independent of your personal experimence and education. Thinking both quickly and abstractly. It peaks at adolescence, then typically starts its slow decline in thirties. Crystallised intelligence: knowledge that's based on facts, solidfied by past experiences and prior learning.
In the end, some of our thinking gets rusty with age but some if it keeps getting better.
Dementia: set of symptoms related to thinking, memory loss, confusion, and potential changes in personality that become severe enough to interfere with regular functioning.
Alzheimer's disease: a form of progressive, irreversible dementia.