[Crash Course] Psychology XXXVIII-XXXX Social influence and conformity/ Discrimination and prejudice Milgram experiment (1961): What might the average person be capable of when under orders? -Obedience was highest when the person giving the orders was nearby and was perceived as an authority figure, especially if they were from a prestigious institution. -The victim was depersonalised, or was placed in the distance -In the condition that they didn't see anyone else disobeying

Some of this conformity is nonconcious automatic mimicry, like how you're likely to laugh, or nod your head when they're nodding. In this way, group behaviour can be contagious.

Conformity describes how we adjust our behaviour or thinking to follow the behaviour or rules of the group we belong to.

Underscored the power of the situation in conformity— whether that situation elicts respect for authority, fear of being different, fear of rejection, or simply a desire for approval.

Normative social influence: the idea that we comply in order to fuel our need to be liked or belong.

Social faciliation: stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.

Social loafing: the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.

Deindividuation: the loss of self-awareness and restraint that can occur in group situations. The less individual we feel, the more we're at the mercy of the experience of our group, whether it's good or bad.

Group polarisation: the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.

The Internet has made it easier than ever to connect like-minded people and magnify their inclinations. This can of course breed haters, but it can, and often does, work for good, promoting education,

Groupthink: the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal 0f althernatives.

What factors might cause us to help another person, or harm them, or fear them? What are the social, cognitive, and emotional roots of prejudice, racism, and sexism, and how do they shape our society?

Prejudice: prejudgement, an unjustified, typically negative, attitude toward an individual or group.

Stereotype: an overgeneralised belief about a particular group of people/

When stereotypic beliefs combine with prejudgicial attitudes and emtions, like fear and hostility, they can drive the behaviour we call discrimination.

Implicit association test (IAT): a test implemented in the late 1990s to try to gauge implicit attitudes, identities, beliefs, and biases people are unwilling, or unable to report.

People on both sides of the stereotype tend to respond similarly, with the subjects of prejudice themselves, often hold the same stereotypical implicit attitudes or engaging in the same discriminatory behaviour.

Why people prejudice: -a way of justifying social inequalities -us vs. them (the ingroup-outgroup phenomenon)

Robber's cave experiment (1961): What it would take for rivals to overcome their differences and resolve their conflicts? To test Realistic conflict theory (conflict happens when you combine negative prejudice with competition over resources). -While isolation and competition made enemies of the strangers, shared goals and cooperation turned enemies into friends.

Aggression and Altruism

Conflict and Cooperation

Aggression: behaviour intended to hurt or destroy someone, something, or even yourself. Frustration-agression hypothesis: the idea that people become aggressive when they're blocked from reaching a goal.

Altruism: our selfless or even self-sacrificing regard for the welfare of others. In which situation people tend to be altruistic? -noticed the incident -interpreted it as an emergency -assumed responsibility Social exchange theory: the theory that our social behaviour is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximise benefits and minimise costs.

Conflict: a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.

Social trap: a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behaviour.

[Crash Course] Psychology XXXVI&XXXVII Biomedical treatments & Social thinking

Client perceptions, Clinician perceptions, Outcome research.

Effectiveness: whether or not a given therapy works in a 'real world setting'.

Efficacy: whether a therapy works better than some other, comparable intervention, or a control.

Instill hope, Gaining new perspective, Genuine empathy, Trusting caring relationship, Offer clear and positive communication.

Biomedical therapies: aim to physiologically change the brain's electrochemical state with psychotropic drugs, magnetic impulses, or even electricial currents and surgery.

Pharmacotherapy, is by far the most widely used, that's the one way where you just take drugs. -Antipsychotics, use to treat schizophrenia, and other types of severe thought disorders. -Anxiolytics, usuallt worked by depressing activity in the central nervous system. -Antidepressants, use to treat depression, but also a number of anxiety disorders. -Mood stabilisers, effective in smoothing out highs and lows of bipolar disorder.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): involves sending a brief electrical current through the brain of an anesthetised patient. -Resulting seizure beneficially alters neurotransmittter activity in areas of the brain associated with moods and emotions. -Electrical pulses modify stress hormone activity in the brain. -Re-activiate previously dormant or suppressed neurons, or possibly stimulate the growth of new ones in key brain regions, helping the brain regain some level of lost functioning.

Social psychology: focuses on the power of the situation. Examines how we think about, influence, and relate to one another in certain conditions.

When we're trying to understand why people act like villains or heroes, one of the things we're really asking is, 'Did they do what they did becuse of their personality or the situation?'

Attribution theory: the theory that we can explain someone's behaviour by crediting either their stable, enduring traits— also known as their dispostion— or the situation at hand. But it can be surprisingly hard to tell whether someone's behaviour is dispositional or situational.

Fundamental attibution error: the tendency for observers, when analysing another's behaviour, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.

What we choose to believe can cause big consequences.

How persuation works: 1st step: central route persuasion: involves calling on basic thinking and reasoning to convince people. This is what's at work when interested people focus on the evidence and arguments at hand, and are persuaded by the actual content of the message. 2nd step: influences people by way of incidental cues, like a speaker's physical attractiveness or personal relationship. Peripheral Route Persuation happens more readily when you're not paying a ton of attention, which is why billboards and television ads can be scarily effective. So that's how politicians and advertisers and maybe bosses and teachers and pushy friends try to change our behaviour by chaning our attitudes. But it turns out that the reverse is true, too. Our attitudes can be affected by our behaviours. You might have heard about the phrase 'Fake it till you make it'.

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon: the tendency for people to more readily comply with a certain big request after they've first agreed to smaller, more innocuous requests. [Like Darth Vader didn't just go from 'Go get them Anakin', to dark lord overnight. He was slowly enticed to the dark side by a series of escalating actions and attitude changes. Do this favour for me, now run this errand, now kill these Padawans. Now blow the planet! What started this small actions went on to become big ones, suddenly transforming Vader's belief's about himself and others. There's plenty of experimental evidence that moral action really does strengthens moral convictions, just as amoral action strengthens amoral attitudes.]

Zimbardo's famous study 'Stanford Prison Experiment': The power of a given situation can easily override individual differences in personality. It sheds such a harsh light on the nature of power and corruption.

So, why does it seem so easy to rationalise a negative action or attitude and so hard to muster the positive ones? One partial explanation comes from American social psychologist Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance. Festinger's theory begins with the notion that we experience discomfort, or dissonance, when our thoughts, beliefs, or behaviours are inconsistent with each other. Basically, we don't like to confuse ourselves. It's kind of an iverted fundamental attribution error. Attributing a person's actions mainly to the situation instead of his personality. The point is that this mismatch between what we do and who we think we are induces tension— cognitive dissonance— and that we tend to want to resolve that tension.

[Crash Course] Psychology XXXIV& XXXV Personality disorders and psychotherapy

Ego-dystonic: those who have them are aware they have a problem and tend to be distressed by their symptoms.

Ego-syntonic: the person experiencing them doesn't necessarily think they have a problem. Personality disorders fall into this catagory.

Personality disorder: psychological disorders marked by inflexible, disruptive, and enduring behaviour patterns that impair social and other functioning— whether the suffer recognises that or not. -Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric personality characteristics: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal. -Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional or Impulsive: antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic. -Cluster C: avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive.

Psychotherapies: -Psychodynamic: served as a kind of historical reconstruction that helped patients access repressed feelings by using free association and dream analysis. -Existential-humanistic: promoting growth rather than curing illness, creating empathetic, genuine, accepting environment by active listening. -Behavioural: elimination of unwanted behaviour is to replace it with more functional behaviour through learning and conditioning in order to change moods. -Cognitive therapies: change thoughts rather than behaviours. Changing what we say to ourselves is a very effective way to cope with our anxieties and modify our behaviour. -Group therapy/ family therapy

[Crash Course] Psychology XXXII & XXXIII Scheizophrenia and Anorexia

Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that ususally surfaces for men in their early to mid-20s, and for women in their late 20s. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: characterised by disorganised thinking; emotions and beahviours that are often incongruent with their situations; and disturbed perceptions, including delusions and hallucinations. -loss of contact with reality -psychotic symptoms -disorganised thinking and speech -breakdown in selective attention -delusions or false beliefs not based in reality -narratives of persecution and paranoia -perceptual disturbances and hallucinations -disorganised, abnormal, incongruent

Diathesis-stress model: a combination of biological and genetic vulnerabilities—diathesis—and environmental stressors—stress—that both contribute to the onset of schizophrenia.

Dissociative disorder: disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. -Dissociative amnesia: when a person may block out specific information or have no memory of a particular event. -Dissociative fugue: during which a person may suddenly just set out on a journey for hours or months, and travel around with no awareness of their identity. -Dissociative identity disorder (DID): when a person exhibits more than one distinct and alternating personality. [Shirley Mason, whose story was famously rendered in the 1973 best seller 'Sybil' and later in a popular mini-series. The book was marketed as the true story of a woman who suffered great childhood trauma and ended up with 16 different personalities, ranging from Vicky, a selfish French Woman, to handyman Syd, to the religious and critical Clara. The book became a craze and within a few years, reported cases of multiple personality disorders, mostly among women, skyrocketed from scarcely 100 to nearly 40,000. Many people believe the book was essentially responsible for creating a new psychiatric diagnosis. It turns out though, Sybil's story was a big fat lie. Shirley Mason was a real person, and one with a troubled, tramatic past and a number of psychological issues. As a student in New York in the 1950s she started seeing a therapist named Connie Wilbur and taking some heavy medications. And somewhere in there, maybe because she was coaxed, or maybe because she wanted more attention, Shirley started expressing different personalities. Doctor Wilbur built a career and a book deal out of her star patient, even after Shirley confessed that her split personality was a ruse. This simple case is a powerful reminder that we really don't understand dissociative disorder very well or even know if they're always real...In this case, dissociations of identity may be in reponse to stress or anxiety, a sort of extreme coping mechanism.]

Anorexia: An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) underweight. -Restriction: usually consisits of an extremely low-calorie diet, excessive exercise, or purging, like vomiting or use of laxatives. -Binge/Purge: involves episodes of binge eating, combined with the restriction behaviour.

Bulimia: An eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting.

Binge-eating disorder: Significant binge-eating, followed by emotional distress, feelings of lack of control, disgust, or guilt, but without purging or fasting.

Reflect some kind of psychological situations: -low self-worth -need to be perfect -falling short of expectations -concern with others perceptions

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD): a psychological illness that centers on a person's obsession with physical flaws- either minor or imagined. -excessive exercise -obsessive grooming -extreme cosmetic procedures -critical and unsatisfied with appearance -fears of deformity -anxiety and depression -avoiding social situations -fear of being judged

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): characterised by unwanted repetitive thoughts, which become obsessions.

[Crash Course] Psychology XXX& XXXI Mood Disorders & Trauma/Addiction Mania: a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.

Emotional states that are even more subjective and harder to define than emotions themselves.

Emotions: joy, contempt, surprise, shame, sadness, fear, anger, guilt, dsgust, excitement.

Moods (long-term emotional states rather than discreet, fleeting feelings): good moods, bad moods.

Mood disorders: characterised by emotional extremes and challenges in regulating mood (tend to be longer-term disturbance). -Depressive disorders: typified by prolonged hopelessness and lethargy. -Bipolar disorders: the most prominent in which involve alternating between depression and mania. -Depression: the common cold of psychological disorders. Common, pervasive, and it's the top reason people seek out mental health help. -Mania

Post Traumatic Stress Order (PTSD): shellshock. A psychological disorder generated by either witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event. PTSD patients may also experience numbing, or periods of feeling emotionless or emotionally 'flat' and dissociation. -reliving the event, through intrusive memories, nightmares, or flashbacks. -avoiding situations you associated with the event -excessive physiological arousal, heart ponding, muscle tension, anxiety or irritability, and major problems sleeping or concentrating. -pervasive negative changes in emotion and beliefs, like feelings of shame, guilt or no longer getting enjoyment out of what you used to.

Fear conditioning, or the unshakable memory of being in mortal danger, and the learned responses that stem from that memory.

PTSD shares some similarities with anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorder is psychological disorders characterised by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviours that reduce anxiety.

Post-traumatic growth: the positive psychological changes resulting from the struggle with challenging circumstances and life crises.

Addiction/ Dependence: compulsive, excessive, and difficult-to-control substance use or other, initially pleasurable behaviour that begins to interfere with ordinary life, work, health, or relationships.

Physical dependence: a physioligical need for a drug, that reveals itself through unpleasant withdrawal symptoms if the use stops or reduces.

Psychological dependence: a psychological need to use a drug, or complete an activity to relieve negative emotions.

[Crash Course] XXVII& XXVIII Psychological disorders

Being dubbed in remission isn't exactly the same thing as being labeled sane, and that was just one of Rosenhan's criticisms of the system. It viewed mental illness as an irreversible condition, almost like a personality trait, rather than a curable illness.

The way people were being diagnosed with psychiatric issues often revealed less about the patients themselves, and more about their situation. Like, saying you've heard voices one time might catch a doctors attention a lot more than weeks of normal behaviour.

Psychological disorders: deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviours that interferes with the ability to function in a healthy way.

In this context, deviant is used to describe thoughts and behaviour that are different from most of the rest of your cultural context. But the concept of deviant changes a lot across cultures and in different situations. But be classified as a disorder, that deviant behaviour needs to cause that person or others around them distress, which just means a subjective feeling that something is really wrong. Dysfunction: when a person's ability to work and live is clearly often measurably impaired.

Biopsychological approach: -psychological influences, stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood-related perceptions and memories. -biological influences, evolution, individual genes, brain structure, and chemistry. -social-cultural influences, roles, expectations, definitions of normality and disorder.

DSM 5: it's designed to be a work in progress

Definitions are powerful.

Anxiety is part of being human, but to some people, it can develop into intense fear, paralyzing dread, and ultimately turn into full-fledged anxiety disorder.

We commonly equate anxiety with fear, but anxiety disorders aren't just a matter of fear itself. A key component is also what we do to get rid of that fear. In medical term, anxiety disorders are characterised not only by distressing, persistent anxiety but also often by the dysfunctional behaviours that reduce that anxiety. At least a fifth of all people will experience a dignosable anxiety disorder of some kind at some point in their lives.

OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder): characterised by unwanted repetitive thoughts, which become obsessions, which are sometimes accompained by actions, which become compulsions. Being neat, orderly and fastidious, doesn't make you OCD. OCD is a debilitating condition whose suffers take normal behaviours perform them compulsively. They often use these compulsive, often ritualistic behaviours to relieve intense and unbearable anxiety.

GAD (Generalised Anxiety Disorder): people with this condition tend to feel continually tense and apprehensive, experiencing unfocused, negative, and out-of-control feelings.

Panic disorder: panic attacks, sudden episodes of intense dread or sudden fear that come without warning.

Phobias: simply experiencing fear or discomfort doesn't make you phobic, and in clinical terms, phobias are persistent, irrational fears of specific objects, activities, or situations. leads to avoidance behaviour.

Social anxiety disorder (social phobia): characterised by anxiety related to interacting or being seen by others.

[Crash Course] Psychology XXV & XXVI Emotions

Emotion: a mind and body's integrated response to a stimulus of some kind. Emotions involve physiological arousal, expressive behaviours, and conscious experience. These can be short flashes or long, lingering responses, and they can be very clear or very confusing.

William James/ Carl Lange: our feelings follow our bodily reactions to external situations, ep., you feel sad because you're crying. James-Lange Theory: the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.

Walter Cannon/ Philip Bard: Cannon-Bard Theory: the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1)physiological responses and (2)the subjective experience of emotion. In other words, a racing heart doesn't cause fear nor does the feeling of fear result in a racing heart, rather, both things just happen together.

Today, many psychologists believe that our emotions are also tangled up with our cognition. Stanley Schachter/ Jerome Singer: cognition can define emotion Two-Factor Theory: the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.

Arousal: an increase in reactivity or wakefulness that primes us for some kind of action. Sometimes, arousal can spill over from one event to the next: say you're just watching a heated soccer match, and you're all revved up, and someone looks at you funny. Suddenly you might label that lingering arousal as anger. The arousal spurs emotion, but cognition directs it.

Robert Zajonc: all emotions are the result of just putting a name to our arousal. Many of our emotional reactions occur separately, or even before our cognition kicks in.

High road : love or hatred You can pin that mushy feeling in your heart to the sensory stimulus of reading travelling from your eyes all the way through your thalamus to your brain's cortex. There, it can be analysed by means of your cognitive process, perhaps consciously, perhaps implicitly and labeled with, like “awww, so sweet”, at which point, it heads to your limbic system, the central brain region that drives emotion, motivation. And that point, you respond with all the warm-fuzzies.

Low road: like, aversions, and fears, don't have to involve actual thinking. Such 'jump-out' stimuli bypass the cortex and zip right from the ear, the eye to the amygdala in the lymbic system. It's a knee-jerk reaction that allows us to react quickly, often in the face of potential danger.

The slower high-road cortex route allows thinking about feeling, while the quicl low-road shortcut allows instant emotional reaction.

It's hard to argue with the fact that we often feel emotions with our bodies as much as with our brains.

Because so many emotions have a certain contagious quality, our feelings and the behaviours they drive also affect the minds, bodies, and health of those around us.

Paul Ekman: Facial expressions are culturally universal.

Facial feedback hypothesis: facial expressions can help regulate our emotions.

Emotions involve a lot more than making faces and hand gestures they're also about our conscious experience of what we're feeling.

Two-dimensional model: any of the emotions you might feel while, like, reading Harry Potter or something, are expressed on a spectrum, and as a combination of valence roughly speaking, good or bad, and arousal.

pleasant/positive relaxed | elated enthusiastic low arousal ___|________ high arousal sluggish| fearful angry sad | unpleasant/negative

What is psychological is ultimately biological. It pretty much goes the way you might expect: happiness is healthful, while chronic anger or depression makes us volunerable to all kinds of problems with health and well-being. The good news is that, we often overestimate the duration of our bad moods and underestimate our capacity to adapt and bounce back from traumas, even the things feel hopeless, depressing or stressful in the thick of it.

Stress can slowly build and simmer, or it can strike suddenly and with great intensity. But define stress is much tricker than you think. Psychologists would define stress as the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, or stressors, that we view as challenging or threatening. -Catastrophes -Significant life changes -Everyday inconveniences

Stress is ultimately natural. You experience it for a reason, and a bit of short-lived stress can actually be a good thing. It can make you active and alert when you need to be, like an upcoming chemistry test might be stressing you out, but that might help you find focus so you can dominate that thing. And in your body, moderate stress can kick the immune system into action to do things like heal wounds and fight infections. Chronic stress can wreck your body.

[Crash Course] Psychology: XXIII XIV Intelligence & Bias

Intelligence: the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new experiences.

Intelligence test: a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.

Spearman and Thurstone: Spatial ability, verbal comprehension, word fluency, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, memory.

Howard Gardner: Intelligence is multiple abilities that come in different forms. Musical, mathematical, linguistic, naturalist, interpersonal, intrapersonal spatial, kinethetic abilities.

Robert Sternberg: Analytical (problem-solving intelligence), creative (ability to adapt to new situations), practical intelligence (for everyday tasks).

Svant syndrome: a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.

Creativity: expertise, imaginative thinking, venturesome personality, creative environment.

Emotional intelligence, defined in 1997 by psychologist Peter Salovey and John Mayer, is the ability to perceive, to understand, manage, and use emotions. [Plenty of smart people who have a hard time processing social information.] -Perceiving emotions: being able to recognise them in faces, and even in music, film, and stories. -Understanding emotions: being able to predict them and how they might change. -Manage emotions: knowing how to appropriately express yourself in various situations. Emotional intelligence also means using emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking.

Francis Galton: [eugenics] The first attempts to measure intelligence in the western world began with English scientist Francis Galton in the eighteen hundreds. Taking the page from his famous brother Charles Darwin's theories on natural selection, Galton wondered how that premise might extend to human's natural ability when it came to intelligence. He suggested that our smarts have a lot to do with heredity, so if we encouraged smart people to breed with each other, we could essentially create a master race of geniuses. If that sounds a little sketchy, because, it was, like, really really sketchy!

Enter Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon: measure child's so-called mental age. The concept of a child's mental age is essentially the level of performance associated with a cerain chronological age. Binet believed that his tests could measure a child's current mental abilities, but that intelligence wasn't a fixed, inborn thing. He believed that a person's capabilities could be raised with proper attentions, self-discipline, and practice. He was hoping that his tests would improve children's education by identifying those who needed extra attention. But Binet also feared that these tests would, in the wrong hands, be used to do the opposite: labeling children as 'lost causes', limiting their opportunities. And wow was he on to something, because that is pretty much exactly what happened.

William Stern: Intelligence quotient (IQ): mental age/ chronolgical age * 100

Lewis Terman: Improved and promoted the IQ measurement to the entire America, using these numerical findings as a kind of label.

In the first half of 20th century, intelligence test scores were used to enforce the sterilisation of about 60,000 people. Poor African American, Native American, and Latina women being forcibly or covertly sterilised in largely numbers as recently as the 1970s. The Nazi: they seterilised or simply excuted hundreds of thousands of victims based on their answers to (pseudo-) IQ test questions.

=============== Today we think intelligence as determined by a series of factors related to genetics, environment, education, and perhaps even randomness itself.

The Wechsler adult intelligence scale or WAIS The Wechsler intelligence scale for children or WISC

Cognitive tests usually fall into one of two categories: -Achievement test: a test designed to assess what a person has learned. -Apptitude test: a test designed to predict a person's future performance, aptittde is the capacity to learn.

-Standardised, defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group. Bell-curve. -Reliable, the extent to which a test yields consistent results. -Valid, the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

The risk of bias may even fall to the test-takers' own expectations.

Stereotype threat: a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.

[Crash Course] XXI& XXII Personality tests

Rorschach test: Klecksography Rorschach was intrigued with Carl Jung's use of word association in attempts to access patients' unconscious minds. To determine how people 'projected' their personal associations onto random shapes. He drew conclusions about a patient's personality.

Personality is one of the most complex and one of the most contested. What makes us who we are?

Personality: your distinctive and enduring characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. 1.By trying to understand differences in specific characteristics, like 'introvertedness' vs 'extrovertedness'. 2.By looking at how all the various parts of each person mesh together as a whole. Basically, what are our characteristics and how do they combine to make me 'me' and you 'you'?

Psychoanalytic perspective (Sigmund Freud): unconscious represented a vast reservoir of often unacceptable and frequently hard-to-tolerate thoughts, feelings, desires and memories. Freud believed that our personalities are largely shaped by the 'enduring conflict between our impulses to do whatever we feel like, and our restaint to control these urges between our pleasure-seeking aggressive urges and our inner social control over them'. He theorised our minds as being divided into three interacting parts: -The ID (unconscious/preconscious, sex and aggression, Pleasure principle, infants were all ID), -The Ego (consious/preconscious, getting what ID wants in a reasonable timely and realistic way), -The Superego (conscious/preconsious, real and ideal), that provide the battleground for this internal conflict that shaped our personalities. He proposed that our egos use a series of indirect and unconscious defense mechanisms to protect themselves from this fear. And each person's particular configuration of defense mechanisms in turn makes up part of what we're referring to here as personality. [through repression, regression, reaction formation, projection, rationalisation, displacement, denial, etc.] Psychosexual stages: -oral (10-18 months): mouth-sucking, biting, chewing -anal (18-36 months): bowel and bladder elimination -phallic (3-6 years): gentials, incestuous sexual feelings, the Oedipus complex reared up. -latency (6 to puberty): dormant sexual feelings -gential (adult): mature sex interests Fixation: a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.

Neo-Freudians: -Karen Horney: feminist psychology 'womb envy' -Carl Jung: driven by the need to achieve a full knowledge of self. Collective unconsious, a group of shared images or archetypes that are universal to all humans and this was why different cultures share similar myths and imagery. -Alfred Adler: ongoing social tensions not sexual ones, as most crucial to the formation of personality. Inferiority complex.

Humanistic Theories: view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth. -Abrahem Maslow: we are motivated by that pyramid-shaped hierarchy of needs, and that once basic needs are met, like food and shelter and whatnot, we're able to achieve higher goals. He believed the top two rungs of that pyramid are where the real growth and personality takes place. Self-acutalisation (the need to live up to our full, unique potential). Self-tanscendence (finding meaning and purpose and identity beyond ourselves). -Carl Rogers: person-centred perspective. He believed we're all basically good eggs so long as we're nurtured in a growth-promoting enviornment that he thought required three conditions (genuiness, acceptance, empathy).

Hippocrates: believed personality manifested itself in four different humours. Traditional Chinese medicine: our personalites depend on the balance of five elements, earth, wind, water, metal and fire. Traditional Hindu Ayurvedic medicine: we're each of the unique three different mind-body principles called Doshas. Freud: who we're in part depend on who was winning the battle of urges between ID, EGO and SUPEREGO. Maslow: the key to self-actualisation was first successfully climbing a hierarchy of more basic needs.

Trait theory: researchers look to define personality through stable and lasting behaviour patterns and conscious motivations. Gordon Allport: descirbe personality in terms of fundamental traits, or characteristic behaviours and conscious motives. Not explain, but describe. OCEAN. These traits are hypothesised to predict behaviour and attitude. Our personality traits are better at predicting our average behaviour than what we'd do in any specific situation.

Social cognitive perspectives: the interaction between our traits and their social context. Alfred Bandura: we learn a lot of our behaviour by watching and imitating others, that's the social part of the equation. Reciprocal determinism: we're both the creators, and the products, of the situations we surround ourselves with.

Thematic appreception test: you'd be presented with evocative but ambiguous pictures, and then asked to provide information about them. The idea is that your responses will reveal something about your concerns and motivations in real life, or how you see the world or about your unconsicous processes that drive you.

Personality trait inventories: The big five, MBTI, Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI).

Possible self, feared self.

[Crash Course] IXX & XX Morality and adolescence

Attachment: Contact and touch are vital to attachment, learning, emotional well-being, and psychological development. Familiarity is also key to attachment.

Imprinting process: the process by which certain animals form attachements during a critical period very early in life.

Secure(70%), insecure avoidant(15%), insecure ambivalent(15%).

Sensitive, attentive mothers usually raised securely attached kids. Less responsive mothers who often ignored their children, or super-anxious mothers who obsessed over every little thing, often raised insecurely attached kids.

Attachement is vital, because it builds the foundation for our sense of basic trust and quite possibly for our adult relationships, our motivation to achieve, and our willingness to be bold.

One of the biggest achievements in childhood is achieving a positive sens of self.

The authoritarian parents make rules with consequences and expect you to follow them because 'I said so!' and tend to not be very warm to their child. Whereas the permissive parents often cave to their child's demands and exert little control over any of their child's behaviour. The authoritative parents seek to find a balance between the two.

The ability to discern right from wrong and the formation of individual character. When these two things combine, they give us morality.

Preconventional morality phase: In this phase, kids are concerned with self interest, but they're also starting to judge people individually, based on their needs and point of view. Conventional morality phase: (Adolescence kids) Here, his subjects put an emphasis on conformity, and worry about what would happen to Heinz if he was seen as a criminal. This phase seems to worry 'What would people think?' Postconventional morality phase: (From adolescence on) We begin to account for differing values and basic rights. Laws are important, but in some situations might overrule them. This phase tops out with reasoning based on universal ethical principles and more abstract reasoning.

Adolescence: the struggle between the need to stand out, and the need to belong. All these kids feel tramendous pressure to maintain their image in their particular group, in part because there's just some security in belonging to a group, even if that group gets picked on by another group.

But the thing is, none of those kids are satisfied with their outward identities. Instead, they're all stuck in the classic teenage struggle, the crisis between identity and role confusion. In other words, their newly forming identity were at odds with other people's expectations of what roles they should play.

Erik Erikson's model: Stage (approximate age) Issue infancy (to 1 year) trust vs. mistrust toddlerhood (1 to 3 years) autonomy vs. shame and doubt preschool (3 to 6 years) initiative vs. guilt elementary school (6 to puberty) competence vs. inferiority adolescence (teen to 20s) identity vs. role confusion young adulthood (20s to 40s) intimacy vs. isolation middle adulthood (40s to 60s) generativity vs. stagnation late adulthood (60s and up) integrity vs. despair

Fluid intelligence: ability to solve problems independent of your personal experimence and education. Thinking both quickly and abstractly. It peaks at adolescence, then typically starts its slow decline in thirties. Crystallised intelligence: knowledge that's based on facts, solidfied by past experiences and prior learning.

In the end, some of our thinking gets rusty with age but some if it keeps getting better.

Dementia: set of symptoms related to thinking, memory loss, confusion, and potential changes in personality that become severe enough to interfere with regular functioning.

Alzheimer's disease: a form of progressive, irreversible dementia.