[Crash Course] Psychology XXXII & XXXIII Scheizophrenia and Anorexia

Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that ususally surfaces for men in their early to mid-20s, and for women in their late 20s. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: characterised by disorganised thinking; emotions and beahviours that are often incongruent with their situations; and disturbed perceptions, including delusions and hallucinations. -loss of contact with reality -psychotic symptoms -disorganised thinking and speech -breakdown in selective attention -delusions or false beliefs not based in reality -narratives of persecution and paranoia -perceptual disturbances and hallucinations -disorganised, abnormal, incongruent

Diathesis-stress model: a combination of biological and genetic vulnerabilities—diathesis—and environmental stressors—stress—that both contribute to the onset of schizophrenia.

Dissociative disorder: disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. -Dissociative amnesia: when a person may block out specific information or have no memory of a particular event. -Dissociative fugue: during which a person may suddenly just set out on a journey for hours or months, and travel around with no awareness of their identity. -Dissociative identity disorder (DID): when a person exhibits more than one distinct and alternating personality. [Shirley Mason, whose story was famously rendered in the 1973 best seller 'Sybil' and later in a popular mini-series. The book was marketed as the true story of a woman who suffered great childhood trauma and ended up with 16 different personalities, ranging from Vicky, a selfish French Woman, to handyman Syd, to the religious and critical Clara. The book became a craze and within a few years, reported cases of multiple personality disorders, mostly among women, skyrocketed from scarcely 100 to nearly 40,000. Many people believe the book was essentially responsible for creating a new psychiatric diagnosis. It turns out though, Sybil's story was a big fat lie. Shirley Mason was a real person, and one with a troubled, tramatic past and a number of psychological issues. As a student in New York in the 1950s she started seeing a therapist named Connie Wilbur and taking some heavy medications. And somewhere in there, maybe because she was coaxed, or maybe because she wanted more attention, Shirley started expressing different personalities. Doctor Wilbur built a career and a book deal out of her star patient, even after Shirley confessed that her split personality was a ruse. This simple case is a powerful reminder that we really don't understand dissociative disorder very well or even know if they're always real...In this case, dissociations of identity may be in reponse to stress or anxiety, a sort of extreme coping mechanism.]

Anorexia: An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15 percent or more) underweight. -Restriction: usually consisits of an extremely low-calorie diet, excessive exercise, or purging, like vomiting or use of laxatives. -Binge/Purge: involves episodes of binge eating, combined with the restriction behaviour.

Bulimia: An eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting.

Binge-eating disorder: Significant binge-eating, followed by emotional distress, feelings of lack of control, disgust, or guilt, but without purging or fasting.

Reflect some kind of psychological situations: -low self-worth -need to be perfect -falling short of expectations -concern with others perceptions

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD): a psychological illness that centers on a person's obsession with physical flaws- either minor or imagined. -excessive exercise -obsessive grooming -extreme cosmetic procedures -critical and unsatisfied with appearance -fears of deformity -anxiety and depression -avoiding social situations -fear of being judged

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): characterised by unwanted repetitive thoughts, which become obsessions.