[Crash Course] Psychological XVII& XVIII Motivation & Knowledge Motivation: in its most basic sense, the need or desire to do something.

Why do we do anything? 1.An evolutionary perspective Instinct: innate 'drives' to act a certain way. But it is misguided. The presence of a tendency doesn't always mean it's supposed to be there. Today, we define instincts as complex, unlearned behaviours that have a fixed pattern throughout a species.

2.Drive-reduction Certain tendencies may be genetic, individual experience plays a major role in behaviour and motivation, as well. A physiological need, or drive, simply compels us to reduce that need. Ep: my need is food, my drive is hunger, my drive-reduction behaviour is burrito. Drive reduction is all about maintaining your body's homeostasis.

We're also pulled along by our incentives, the positive or negative stimuli that either entice or repel us. We're motivatied to maintain a balance between stimulation and relaxation.

3.Optional arousal We're motivated to avoid both boredom and stress. Adrenaline junkies may jump out of planes to hit their ideal level, whereas others might be satiated by an engaging book, or new knitting pattern.


We are driven by at least three big motivators: Sex, hunger, need to belong

Our hunger is also shaped by our psychology, culture and mood. These factors don't just rule when we're hungry, they also guide what we're hungry for.

Our social needs have to be balanced with our autonomy, or sense of personal control, so we feel both connected and independent.

Developmental psychology: the study of our physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes throughout our whole lives— from prenatal to preteen to post-retirement.

Schemas: mental frameworks that help interpret information

Assimilation: we interpret them in terms of our existing schemas.

Accommodation: adjust our schemas to adapt to the new experience.

Four-stage theory of cognitive development (Piaget) 1.Sensorimotor stage: birth-age 2. Lack the object of permanence. 2.Preoperational stage: age 2- 6/7. Marked by egocentrism. Animism. Have a hard time to: Reversibility. Centation. Start to forming their theory of mind, the ability to understand other people's feelings, thoughts and perceptions— as well as their own— and also how to predict behaviour. 3.Concrete operational stage:6/7-11/12. Think logically. Decentration. 4.Formal operational stage: 12-rest of our lives.

[Crash Course] Psychology XV& XVI Cognition and language Cognition: our thoughts, perspectives, and expectations, involving knowing, remembering, understanding, communicating and to a certain extent, learning.

Concept: mental grouping of similar objects, people, ideas, or events. concepts, simplify our thinking in such a fundamental way that we usually don't have to stop and think about using them, they're just there.

Prototype: mental image or pinnacle example of a certain thing.

Concepts and prototypes can speed up our thinking, but they also can box our thinking in, and lead to prejudice if we see something that doesn't fit our prototypes. So, it's important to actively keep your mind open to make room for evolving concepts.

Our coginition works to our benefit through our ability to solve problems.

Problem-solving strategies: Plan of attack: -Trail and error -Algorithm: logical, methodical, step-by-step procedure that eventually guarantees a solution, but may be slow to work through. -Heuristic [mental shortcut]: simple strategy that allows us to solve problems faster, although more error-prone than an algorithm.

Confirmation bias: the tendency to look for and favour evidence that confirms our ideas while avoiding or ignoring evidence to the contrary.

Belief perseverance: the tendency to cling to initial conceptions or beliefs despite proof to the contrary.

People can really get weird and defensive when they evade facts and choose to see only the information that confirms their beliefs. They may even become functionally fixed, unable to view a problem from a new perspective. Instead, they just keep approaching a situation with the same mental set, especially if it's worked in the past.

Why smart people make dumb decisions? People believe an event will be more likely to occur if they can conjure up examples or memories of it. The more mentally available those memories are, the more it seems that it's going to happen again [Availability heuristic].

We are great at fearing the wrong things.

Framing: how an issue is posed or presented — framing can significantly affect decisions and judgements.

Language can be accquired spontaneously through observation without planned training .

Language: a set of spoken, written, or signed words and the way we combine them to communicate meaning.

Phonemes: short, distinctive sound units. Morphemes: the smallest units that carry meaning. Grammar: a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.

Receptive language: the ability to understand what's being said both to, and about us.

Speech development: -Babbling: beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language. -One-word stage: the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words. -Two-word stage: beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements. [sound like telegraphic speech]

[Crash Course] Psychology XIII& XIV Memory Our memory helps us make who we are. Memory is the chain that connects our past to our present. If it breaks, we're left untethered, incapable of leaving the present moment, and unable to embrace the future. Technically, memory is that learning that has persisited over time— information that has been stored and, in many cases, can be recalled. -recall, a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier. -recognition, a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned. -relearning, a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again.

Atkinson and Shiffrin's model: Sensory memory |encoding Working/ short-term memory retrieving |encoding Long-term memory storage

Our mind can really only hold between four to seven distinct bits of information at a time, at which point, the memory either decays, or gets transferred into long-term memory.

Working memory: conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory. -auditory rehearsal -central executive -visual-spatial information

Explicit memory: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciouly know and 'declare'.

Implicit memory: retention independent of conscious recollection, the kind you don't have to actively concentrate on.

Automatic processing: non-conscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

Procedural memory: how we remember to do things, like riding a bike or reading, it's effortful to learn at first, but eventually you can do it without thinking about it.

Long-term memory can also be episodic, tied to specific episodes of your life.

Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organisational devices.

Chunking: organising items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically. A seven-digit number, into four chunks, or just write a song about it.

Shallow processing: encoding information on basic auditory or visual levels, based on the sound, structure or appearance of a word.

Deep processing: encodes semantically, based on actual meaning associated with the word. Connect it to something meaningful, or related to your own personal, emotional experience.

Our memory may haunt us or sustain us, but either way, they define us. Without them, we are left to wander alone in the dark.

Our memories are more like the spiderwebs in the dank catacombs of your mind, a series of interconnected associations that link all sorts of diverse things, as bits of information get stuck to other bits of information.

Retrieval cues: kind of like a trail of breadcrumbs, leading back to a particular memory. The more retrieval cues you inadvertently or intentionally build along the way, the better you can backtrack and find the memory you're looking for. This way called priming, activiting associations non-consciously, sometimes called 'memoryless' memory.

Priming is how you often jog your memory. This kind of recall sometimes referred to as Context-dependent memory: you have to go back to that specific situation to recall what you've forgotten.

State-dependent memory: also Mood-congruent, which just means that our states and our emotions can also serve as retrieval cues.

In what situation we forget: 1.We fail to encode it 2.We fail to retrieve it 3.We experience storage decay

Retroavtive interference: the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.

So in a way, we're sort of perpetually re-writing our pasts. While this is an inevitable part of human nature, it can prove dangerous at times. Misleading information can get incorporated into a memory and twist truth, and there's an effect for this: Misinformation effect.

Source misattribution: forgetting or misrecalling the source of a memory.

Memory is both a reconstruction and a reproduction of past events. We can't ever really be sure if a memory is real just because it feels real.

Misleading the thief's identification: Emotion Retelling Suggestion outside sources Darkness Quick glimpse Passing of time

Human memory is a fraigle thing, and we're all largely the product of the stories that we tell ourselves.

[Crash Course] Psychology XI&XII Learning process

Behaviourism: an empirically rigorous science focused on observable behaviours and not unobservable internal mental processes.

Learning: the process of acquiring, through experience, new and relatively enduring information or behaviours. Learning is what allows us to adapt to our environments and to survive.

  1. Associative learning: when a subject links certain events, behaviours, or stimuli together in the process of conditioning. Animals can exhibit associative learning.

This may be the most elemental, basic form of learning a brain can do, but that doesn't mean that the processes behind conditioning are, or ever were, obvious. Or for that matter, simple.

2.1 Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. It shows that how a process like learning can actually be studied through direct observation of behaviour.

2.2 Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behaviour is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. The basic premise here is that behaviours increase when followed by a reinforcement, or reward, but they decrease when followed by a punishment. (B.F. Skinner, the operant chamber/Skinner box) [Operant-conditioning behaviour requires shaping, which is a procedure that reinforcers guide behaviour towards closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour.]

  1. Reinforcement and punishment 3.1 Positive reinforcement: a stimulus that when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

3.2 Negative reinforcement: any stimulus that when removed after a response, strengthens the response. Removes the punishing event to increase a behaviour.

3.3 Punishment: decreases a behaviour either positively or negatively.

3.4 Primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need. Beeping and cookies.

3.5 Conditioned reinforcer: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer. Pay checks.

3.6 Reinforcement schedule: a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced.

3.7 Partical (intermittent) reinforcement: reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement. Learning under these conditions takes longer, but it holds up better in the long run and is less susceptible to that extinction.

Behaviourism thinks, that learning is soley aboutconditioning and association, rewards and punishments

Social-cognitive learning thinks, that learning can occur through observing and imitating someone else's behaviour.

What we learn doesn't only influence our behaviour, it also shapes our attitudes.

Cognition: our thoughts, perspectives, and expectations.

Social context

Models are important.

[Crash Course] Psychology IX&X Other types of consciousness IX Dreams and Sleeps Sleep: a periodic, natural, reversible and near total loss of consciousness. But sleep is just another state of consciousness.

The meanings of sleep: -Part of it probably has to do with simple recuperation, allowing our neurons and other cells to rest and repair themselves. -Sleep also supports growth, because that's when our pituitary gland release growth hormones. -Plus, sleep has all kinds of benefits for mental function, like improving memory, giving our brains time to process the events of the day, and boosting our creativity.

Electroencephalograph (EEG): machine that measures the brain's electrical activity.

Rapid eye movement (REM): a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. A perplexing period when the sleeping brain is buzzing with activity, even tough the body is in a deep slumber.

Four distinct stages of sleep: -REM (Rapid Eye Movement) -NREM-1 (Non-Rapid Eye Movement) -NREM-2 -NREM-3

Say you're just going to bed. All day your endocrine system has been releasing “awake” hormones like cortisol. But with nightfall comes, the release of sleepy melatonin hormones from the pineal gland. Your brain is relaxed, but still awake, a level of activity that EEGs measure as alpha waves. You're feeling sleepy, your breath slows, and suddenly you are asleep. This exactmoment is clearly evident on an EEG reading, as those alpha waves immediately transition to the irregular non-Rapid Eye Movement stage one (NREM-1) waves. At this stage you might experience hypnagogic sensations, those brief moments when you feel like you're falling, and your body jerks, startling you. As you relax more deeply, you move into NREM-2 stage sleep, as your brain starts exhibiting bursts of rapid brain wave activity called sleep spindles. You're now definitely asleep, but you could still be easily awakened. NREM-3 comes with slow rolling delta waves. You can have brief and fragmentary dreams in the first three stages of sleep, but eventually you'll get to the most important stage: FULL REM SLEEP. That famous stage of sugarplum slumber that makes eyeballs go nuts, grants vivid visual dreams, and provided the namesake for a certain famous rock band. That whole sleep cycle repeats itself every 90 minutes or so, transitioning back and forth between the stages of sleep.

Lack of sleep is terrible for your health, mental ability, and mood. In fact, it's a predicator for depression and has been linked to things like weight gain, as your hunger-arousing and -suppressing hormones get out of whack. Sleep deprivation also causes immune system suppression, and slow reaction time.

Sleep disorder: -Insomnia, which is persistent problems of falling or staying asleep. -Narcolepsy, whose sufferers sometimes experience brief, uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness, called 'sleep attacks'. -Sleep apnea, causes the sleeper to temporarily stop breathing until their decreased oxygen levels wake them up. -REM sleep behaviour disorder -Night terrors, spurring increased heart and breathing rates, screaming and thrashing that's seldom remembered upon waking. Most common in children under seven. Occurs during NREM-3, like sleepwalking and sleeptalking. -Nightmares. Occur during REM.

What's the purpose of dreaming? Oneirology: 'Oneiros' is the Greek for 'dream'. The study of dreams is a mix of neuroscience and psychology.

Theories: -Freud proposed in his 1900 Interpretation of Dreams that our dreams offer us wish-fulfilment. He thought a dream's manifest content, the stuff you remember in the morning was a sort of censored and symbolic version of whatever inner conflict was really going on in that dream's unconscious, or latent, content. [Lack scientific chops] -The Information Processing Theory. Our dreams help us sort out and process the day's events and fix them into our memories. -The Physiological Function Theory. Dreaming may promote neural development and preserve neural pathways by providing the brain with stimulation. When our brain is stimulated, they expand their connections more. -The Cognitive Development Theory. Dreams are part of our cognitive development, they draw on our knowledge and understanding of the world, mimicking reality, engaging those same brain networks that light up when we daydream. -The Neural Activity Theory. REM sleep triggers neural activity, and dreams are accidental side-effects.

X Altered state of consciousness -Hypnosis: a calm, trance-like state during which you tend to have heighted concentration and focus, and in which you're typically more open to suggestion. It is when you're fully conscious in the clinical sense, but also not in what you'd consider a normal waking state. Hypnosis cannot make you act totally against your will, nor is hypnosis a reliable way to enhance the recall of deeply buried memories. But it can increase your suggestability. —As a social influence, they act in the role of being hyponotised. —A special dual-processing state of 'split consciousness' called Dissociation. Detachment from your surroundings which can range from mild spacing out all the way up to a total loss of your sense of yourself. —Help us to adaptive dissociative capacity that we all seem to have. -Hallucinations. -Use drugs. The more you use a substance, legal or illegal, the less you feel its effects as your tolerance grows. That's your brain chemistry adapting to offset the drug effect in a process called neuroadaptation, and soon you'll risk a physical and/or psychological addiction to the substance you choose, or the substance that chose you.

The placebo effect: They also work by tapping into the psychological component, in other words, the user's expectations about what substance might mean. Like, if you really believe that drinking tequila makes you more aggressive and I give you a virgin margarita, your mere expectation of getting all surly and aggro may actually lead you to punch someone in the neck.

3 catogeries of psychological substances: -Dpressants, like alcohol, tranquillisers and opiates, they bring the mellow, slow body functions and suppress neural activity. For example, alcohol, acts as a disinhibitor, impairing your brain's judgement areas, while reducing your self-awareness and self-control. And then because alcohol disrupts memory formations you may wake up wondering where one of your eyebrows went. Similar to booze, tranquillisers or barbiturates, depress nervous system activity and may be prescribed to ease anxiety or insomnia. Opiates, depress nervous system and envelop the brain in a fog of no-pain bliss. The thing is, if a brain keeps getting flooded with outside opiates, it will eventually stop brewing its own natural pain killing neurotransmitters endorphins. The resulting withdrawal is particularly nasty.

-Stimulants, excite neural activity and speed up body functions, bring up your energy, self-confidence and changing your mood. Legal: caffeine, nicotine, and prescription amphetamines. Illegal: street amphetamines, meth, ecstasy and cocaine. So, when those neurotransimitters are excessively activiated, they can become temporarily depleted, which is what causes that agitated, depressive crash that users often feel.

-Hallucinogens, which come in a variety of plant and fungal forms, and synthetic forms like LSD or lysergic acid diethylamide. Also called psychedelics, these drugs distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of actual sensory input. Without the use drugs, there are lots of involuntarily ways to hallucinate. Neurological disturbances spur hallucinations of one kind or another.

[Crash Course] Psychology VII& VIII Perceiving is believing/ Consciousness

Our perception, or how we order the cacophonus chaos of our environment is heavily influenced, biased even, by our expectations, experiences, moods, and even cultural norms. And we can be pretty good at fooling ourselves. Our perception is the process that allows us to make meaning out of our senses and experience the world around us.

What we see is the realm of the mind, not the eye.

Perceptual set is affected by: -Expectation. Your expectations are just one factor in your perceptual set: the psychological factors that determine how you perceive your environment. Sometimes, seeing is believing, but perceptual set theory teaches us that believing is also seeing. -Context. Context is another factor in your perceputal set. If the duck bunny thing was pictured with Easter eggs all around it, you'd think bunny right away, considering that of ducks and bunnies, one is actually much more to be near an egg. -Culture. -Emotions and motives. People will say a hill is more steep if they're listening to emo by themselves than if they're listening to power-walk and walking with a friend.

Most of the time, your perceptual set leads you to reasonable conclusions, but sets can also be misleading or even harmful.

Form perception: dig a neat little dynamic called the “Figure ground relationship”, which is the organisation of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surrounding (the ground). [perceive something meaningful to you]

Rules of grouping: like organising things by (1)proximity, (2)continuity, or (3)closure.

Depth perception: the ability to see objects in three dimensions although images that strike the retina are two-dimensional. Depth perception is what helps us estimate an object's distance and full shape an object's distance and full shape. In this process, you may use functions as follows: -Binocular cues: depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes. [require to use both eyes, retinal disparity] -monocular cues: depth cues, such as interposition and linear perceptive, available to either eye alone.

Motion perception: to infer speed and direction of a moving object, like, shrinking objects are retreating, and enlarging objects are approaching.

Constancy: consistency, allows us to continue to recognise an object.

Your brain constructs your perceptions.

Consciousness: [a loosey definition] our awareness of ourselves and our environment. It's this awareness that allows us to take in and organise information from many sources and senses, at once.

Selective attention: the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus or group of stimuli.

Selective inattention

Inattentional blindness: when your full attention is directed elsewhere, you'd be astounded by the scope of obvious things you fail to notice.

Change blindness: psychological phenomenon in which we fail to notice changes in our environment.

[Thoth tarot] Four elements

Fire: Wands, the purest and most active, corresponds to the Father/King(Knight); Sulphur, activity, energy, desire. Hebrew alphabet, Shin.

Water: Cups, still pure but passive, is the Mother/Queen; Mercury, fluidity, intelligence, the power of transmission. Hebrew alphabet, Mem.

Air=Fire+Water: Swords, pure element, Son/Prince(King); Salt, the vehicle of these two forms of energy, but itself possesses qualities which react on them. Hebrew alphabet, Aleph.

Earth: Disks (Coins/ Pentacles), Daughter/ Princess, the Throne of Spirit. Hebrew alphabet, Tau.

The Tree of Life can be divided into four planes: (corresponds to the analysis of Man) – the number 1; fire. His spiritual essence without quality or quantity. Jechidah. -numbers 2, 3; water. His creative and transmissive powers, his virility and his intelligence. Chiah and Neschamah. -numbers 4-9, air. His mental and moral qualities as concentrated in his human personality. (Especially: number 6 is the concrete elaboration of the number 1) Ruach. -number 10, earth. The physical vehicle of the previous nine numbers. Nephesch.

This four planes also correspond to the so-called “Four Worlds”: -No.1, Atziluth, the Archetypal World. -No.2, as being the dynamic aspect of the No.1, the Practical attribution. -No.3, Briah, the Creative World in which the Will of the Father takes shape through the Conception of the Mother. -No.4-9,Yetzirah, the Formative World, in which an intellecual image, an appreciable form of the idea, is produced; and this mental image becomes real and sensible in the No.10, Assiah, the Material World.

[Crash Course]Psychology V&VI Sensation and perception

Sensation: the bottom-up process by which our senses, like vision, hearing and smell, receive and relay outside stimuli.

Perception: the top-down way our brains organise and interpret that information and put it into context.

Example: So right now at this very moment, you're probably receive light from your screen through your eyes, which will send the data of that sensation to your brain. Perception, meanwhile, is your brain telling you that what you're seeing is a diagram explaning the difference between sensation and perception, which is pretty meta. Now your brain is interpreting that light as a talking person, whom your brain might additionaly recognise as Hank.

Absolute threshold of sensation: the minimum stimulation needed to register a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time.

Signal detection theory: a model for predicting how and when a person will detect weak stimuli, partly based on context.

Sensory adaptation: if you're experiencing constant stimulation, your senses will adjust, in a process called Sensory Adaptation.

Weber's law: we perceive differences on a logarithmic not a linear scale. It's not the amount of change, it's the percentage change that matters.

Parallel processing: the brain simultaneously works on making sense of form, depth, motion and colour.

Synesthesia: The production of a sense impression relating to one sense or part of the body by stimulation of another sense or part of the body. A rare and fascinating neurological condition where two or more senses get wrapped together. This kind of sensory mix up is involuntary, and is experienced without forethought in a durable and consistent way. Like, the number 7 is always going to taste like coffee and it's never going to switch to tomato juice. -What causes synesthesia? -Theory 1: The rogue development of new neural connections may override normal boundaries that typically separate the senses. -Theory 2: All babies are born with synesthesia and experience mixed senses until the brain matures and creates separate sense channels. -Theory 3: Neurotransmitters associated with one function turn up in a different part of the brain.

Our taste and smell are chemical senses, highly related to our experience and memory.

When it comes to our senses, we're all about touching. The sense of touch is actually a combination of four distinct sensations: pressure, warmth, cold and pain. Ultimately, your sense of touch joins forces with sensors in your bones, joints and tendons to provide your personal kinesthesis, the way your body senses its own movement and positioning.

[Crash Course] Psychology III&IV Brain

Everything psychological is biological.

Neurons/Nerve cells are the building blocks that comprise our nervous systems. Neurons share the same basic makeup as are other cells. Four types of neurons: -bipolar, interneuron -unipolar, sensory neuron -multipolar, motor neuron -pyramidal cell

-cell body, basically the neurons life support, contains all that necessary cell actions like the nucleus, DNA, mitochondrial, ribosomes... -dendrites, as bushy branch-like as trees they're named after, receive messages and gossip from other cells. they're the listeners, whispering what they hear back to the soma -axon, talker, this long cable like extension transmits electrical impulses from the cell body out to other neurons or glands or muscles. -synapse -synaptic gap -neurontransmitters

Different parts of the brain control specific aspects of our behaviour.

Some neuroscientists like to say that the mind is, what the brain does. So, one of the driving questions in psychology and like the human experiment, is how do our brains's functions tie to the behaviour of the mind?

-Central nervous system (CNS): what makes your body's big decision, is the command centre. -Peripheral nervous system (PNS): is composed of Scout like sensory neurons that gather information and report back to the central nervous system.

The case of Phineas

“Old brain”: -brain stem -medulla, brain functions happen automatically without any conscious effort -pons, coordinate movement -thalamus, egg shaped structures that take in sensory infomation related to seeing, hearing, touching and tasting – reticular formation, essential for arousal, sleeping, walking and pain perception – cerebellum, little brain, nonverbal learning, the perception of time, modulating emotions, controls voluntary movement

Limbic system (separating the old brain and the newer, higher cerebral areas): -amygdala, responsible for memory consolidation, controls our greatest fear and hottest aggression -hypothalamic, keeps whole body steady, regulating body temperature, circadian rhythms and hunger, helps govern the endocrine system, especially the pituitary gland, feel pleasure and reward -hippocampus, central to learning and memory

The gray matter: the two hemispheres of your cerebrum make up about 85 percent of your brain weight, and oversee your ability to think, speak, and perceive.

Corpus callosum: connect two hemispheres of brain Left brain: language production Right brain: certain creative functions

Cerebral cortex: -the frontal lobe, speaking ,planning, judging, abstract thinking, personality aspect -the parietal lobe, sense of touch, body position -the occipital lobe, information related to sight -the temporal lobe, comprehension, sound, speech

-glial cells, provide a spider web support that surround insulate and nourish the cerebral neurons -association areas

[Crash Course] Psychology I Intro II Method I Introduction The word 'psychology' comes from the latin for 'the study of the soul', but today we can safely call it 'the science of behaviour and mental processes.'

The term of 'psychology' was coined around the 16th century, and the science we called today established at around mid-18th century . But humans have always been curious about themselves and what's going on up the brain. Aristotle pondered the seed of human consciousness and decided that it was in the heart, not the head. (but today it seems totally wrong)

The field of psychology has been tackling some of the big questions, like: 1.How can humans commit genocide or torture other humans? And how come we know those things are horrible? 2.Do we have free will, or are we driven by our environment, biology, and nonconscious influences? 3.What is mental illness, and what can we do about it? 4.What is consciousness or the notion of self? If I lose my awareness of myself, am I still human?

Mainly ideas: 1.Structualism (1879, Germany, physician Wihelm Wundt) Tried to understand the structures of consciousness by getting patients to look inward, asking them how they felt when they watched the sunset or smelled the coffee or licked a kitten or whatever. (It relied so much on introspection that it became too subjective.)

2.Functionalism (1890, America, physician and philosopher William James) Inspired by Charles Darwin's idea 'that adapted behaviour are conserved through the evolutionary process'. Why we think and feel and smell and whatever. Focus on the function of behaviour.

3.Psychoanalysis (1913, Freud) To free associate. The radical kernel of psychoanalysis was the theory that our personalities are shaped by unconscious motives. Basically, Freud suggested that we are all profoundedly affected by mental processes that we are not even aware of. The subconscious, literally the thing below consciousness, was still discoverable. Even you cannot be aware of it, you could come to understand it through a therapeutic technique that used dreams, projections, and free association to root out repressed feelings and gain self-insight. – Behaviourism (Skinner) condition them to perform certain behaviours – Psychodynamic theories the importance of early experiences on shaping the unconsciousness and how that process affects our thoughts, feelings, behaviours and personalities

=========================================== II Methodology Hindsight bias (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon): Our intuitive sense more easily describes what just happened than what will happen in the future. Our natural tendency toward overconfidence

Scientific Method: Step one: Operationalise your questions. Figure out how to ask general questions about your subject and turn them into measurable, testable propositions. (Question and a theory) Step two: Hypothesis, testable prediction. Step three: Test with a replicable experiment.

-Case studies: becuase by their nature they cannot be replicated. so, the run the risk of over-generalising. still, they're good at showing us what can happen and end up framing questions for more extensive and generalisable studies. story-telling device. -Naturalistic observation: where researchers just watch behaviour in a natural environment. let the subjects do their thing, without trying to manipulate or control the situation. -Survey. sampling bias/ random sample

Correlations predict the possiblity of cause-and-effect relationships, but they cannot prove them.

Experiments: allow investigators to isolate different effects by manipulating an independent variable, and keeping other variables constant. experimental group/ control group/ double-blind procedure

Example 1.Question: Do humans solve problems faster when given caffeine? 2.Hypothesis: Caffeine makes me smarter? x Adult humans given caffeine will navigate a maze faster than adult humans not given caffeine. √ 3.Independent variable: Caffeine dosage Dependent variable: Speed at which a subject navigates through this giant corn maze 4.Groups: (1)Control Group: Decaf (2)Experimental Group 1: 100mg (3)Experimental Group 2: 500mg 5.View the results and compare them just to see if there were any conclusive results.