[Crash Course] Psychology III&IV Brain

Everything psychological is biological.

Neurons/Nerve cells are the building blocks that comprise our nervous systems. Neurons share the same basic makeup as are other cells. Four types of neurons: -bipolar, interneuron -unipolar, sensory neuron -multipolar, motor neuron -pyramidal cell

-cell body, basically the neurons life support, contains all that necessary cell actions like the nucleus, DNA, mitochondrial, ribosomes... -dendrites, as bushy branch-like as trees they're named after, receive messages and gossip from other cells. they're the listeners, whispering what they hear back to the soma -axon, talker, this long cable like extension transmits electrical impulses from the cell body out to other neurons or glands or muscles. -synapse -synaptic gap -neurontransmitters

Different parts of the brain control specific aspects of our behaviour.

Some neuroscientists like to say that the mind is, what the brain does. So, one of the driving questions in psychology and like the human experiment, is how do our brains's functions tie to the behaviour of the mind?

-Central nervous system (CNS): what makes your body's big decision, is the command centre. -Peripheral nervous system (PNS): is composed of Scout like sensory neurons that gather information and report back to the central nervous system.

The case of Phineas

“Old brain”: -brain stem -medulla, brain functions happen automatically without any conscious effort -pons, coordinate movement -thalamus, egg shaped structures that take in sensory infomation related to seeing, hearing, touching and tasting – reticular formation, essential for arousal, sleeping, walking and pain perception – cerebellum, little brain, nonverbal learning, the perception of time, modulating emotions, controls voluntary movement

Limbic system (separating the old brain and the newer, higher cerebral areas): -amygdala, responsible for memory consolidation, controls our greatest fear and hottest aggression -hypothalamic, keeps whole body steady, regulating body temperature, circadian rhythms and hunger, helps govern the endocrine system, especially the pituitary gland, feel pleasure and reward -hippocampus, central to learning and memory

The gray matter: the two hemispheres of your cerebrum make up about 85 percent of your brain weight, and oversee your ability to think, speak, and perceive.

Corpus callosum: connect two hemispheres of brain Left brain: language production Right brain: certain creative functions

Cerebral cortex: -the frontal lobe, speaking ,planning, judging, abstract thinking, personality aspect -the parietal lobe, sense of touch, body position -the occipital lobe, information related to sight -the temporal lobe, comprehension, sound, speech

-glial cells, provide a spider web support that surround insulate and nourish the cerebral neurons -association areas