[Crash Course] Psychology XIII& XIV Memory Our memory helps us make who we are. Memory is the chain that connects our past to our present. If it breaks, we're left untethered, incapable of leaving the present moment, and unable to embrace the future. Technically, memory is that learning that has persisited over time— information that has been stored and, in many cases, can be recalled. -recall, a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier. -recognition, a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned. -relearning, a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again.

Atkinson and Shiffrin's model: Sensory memory |encoding Working/ short-term memory retrieving |encoding Long-term memory storage

Our mind can really only hold between four to seven distinct bits of information at a time, at which point, the memory either decays, or gets transferred into long-term memory.

Working memory: conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory. -auditory rehearsal -central executive -visual-spatial information

Explicit memory: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciouly know and 'declare'.

Implicit memory: retention independent of conscious recollection, the kind you don't have to actively concentrate on.

Automatic processing: non-conscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

Procedural memory: how we remember to do things, like riding a bike or reading, it's effortful to learn at first, but eventually you can do it without thinking about it.

Long-term memory can also be episodic, tied to specific episodes of your life.

Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organisational devices.

Chunking: organising items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically. A seven-digit number, into four chunks, or just write a song about it.

Shallow processing: encoding information on basic auditory or visual levels, based on the sound, structure or appearance of a word.

Deep processing: encodes semantically, based on actual meaning associated with the word. Connect it to something meaningful, or related to your own personal, emotional experience.

Our memory may haunt us or sustain us, but either way, they define us. Without them, we are left to wander alone in the dark.

Our memories are more like the spiderwebs in the dank catacombs of your mind, a series of interconnected associations that link all sorts of diverse things, as bits of information get stuck to other bits of information.

Retrieval cues: kind of like a trail of breadcrumbs, leading back to a particular memory. The more retrieval cues you inadvertently or intentionally build along the way, the better you can backtrack and find the memory you're looking for. This way called priming, activiting associations non-consciously, sometimes called 'memoryless' memory.

Priming is how you often jog your memory. This kind of recall sometimes referred to as Context-dependent memory: you have to go back to that specific situation to recall what you've forgotten.

State-dependent memory: also Mood-congruent, which just means that our states and our emotions can also serve as retrieval cues.

In what situation we forget: 1.We fail to encode it 2.We fail to retrieve it 3.We experience storage decay

Retroavtive interference: the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.

So in a way, we're sort of perpetually re-writing our pasts. While this is an inevitable part of human nature, it can prove dangerous at times. Misleading information can get incorporated into a memory and twist truth, and there's an effect for this: Misinformation effect.

Source misattribution: forgetting or misrecalling the source of a memory.

Memory is both a reconstruction and a reproduction of past events. We can't ever really be sure if a memory is real just because it feels real.

Misleading the thief's identification: Emotion Retelling Suggestion outside sources Darkness Quick glimpse Passing of time

Human memory is a fraigle thing, and we're all largely the product of the stories that we tell ourselves.